Foreign investments in the UK are subject to specific tax rules and regulations.
Overview of the key tax rules for foreign investments:
Foreign companies that have a permanent establishment (PE) or carry on a trade in the UK are liable for UK corporation tax on their UK-sourced profits. The profits attributable to the PE are subject to corporation tax at the prevailing rates.
Double Taxation Relief:
The UK has entered into double taxation agreements (DTAs) with various countries to prevent the double taxation of income. These agreements provide relief by allowing taxpayers to claim credit or exemption for taxes paid in the foreign jurisdiction.
Withholding tax may be applicable to certain types of payments made to non-resident individuals or companies. For example, dividends, interest, and royalties paid to non-residents may be subject to withholding tax at the prevailing rates, unless reduced or exempted under a relevant DTA.
Foreign investments involving transactions with related parties must comply with transfer pricing rules. These rules ensure that transactions are conducted on an arm’s length basis, reflecting the fair market value. Proper transfer pricing documentation and adherence to the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines are essential to avoid tax disputes.
Controlled Foreign Company (CFC) Rules:
The UK has CFC rules designed to prevent the diversion of profits to low-tax jurisdictions. These rules attribute certain types of income of a controlled foreign company to UK resident taxpayers, who are then subject to UK taxation on those profits.
Thin Capitalization Rules:
Thin capitalization rules restrict the amount of interest that can be deducted for tax purposes when a company has excessive debt. The rules aim to prevent the artificial shifting of profits through excessive interest payments to foreign lenders.
Capital Gains Tax (CGT):
Non-residents are generally subject to CGT on the disposal of certain UK assets, such as real estate or shares in UK property-rich companies. Different rates and exemptions may apply depending on the specific asset and the country of residence of the investor.
Value Added Tax (VAT):
Foreign businesses may have VAT obligations in the UK if they provide taxable supplies of goods or services. Depending on the nature and extent of their UK activities, foreign businesses may be required to register for VAT and comply with VAT reporting and payment obligations.
Statutory Residence Test (SRT):
For individuals, the SRT determines their tax residence status in the UK. Residence status affects the scope of UK taxation, including the extent to which foreign income is taxable in the UK. The SRT considers factors such as the number of days spent in the UK, ties to the UK, and other relevant connections.
Non-domiciled individuals may be eligible for the remittance basis of taxation, whereby they are taxed on their UK income and gains only to the extent they are remitted (brought) into the UK. Specific rules and conditions apply, and individuals should seek professional advice to understand their tax obligations.
|Tax Rules for Foreign Investments||Governing Laws|
|Corporation Tax||Corporation Tax Act 2010|
|Double Taxation Relief||Double Taxation Relief (Bilateral Agreements) Regulations 2010|
|Withholding Tax||Income Tax (Subcontractors in the Construction Industry) Regulations 2005|
|Transfer Pricing||Finance Act 1998, Transfer Pricing Documentation Regulations|
|Controlled Foreign Company (CFC) Rules||Income Tax Act 2007, CFC legislation|
|Thin Capitalization Rules||Corporation Tax Act 2010, Thin Capitalization Regulations|
|Capital Gains Tax (CGT)||Taxation of Chargeable Gains Act 1992, Capital Gains Tax Act 2007|
|Value Added Tax (VAT)||Value Added Tax Act 1994, VAT Regulations|
|Statutory Residence Test (SRT)||Income Tax (Earnings and Pensions) Act 2003, SRT guidance|
|Non-Domiciled Individuals||Income Tax Act 2007, Inheritance Tax Act 1984|