Training development is a five-step process in which company train their employees in specific skills and further monitor their performance constantly to help them develop overall personality.
The training and development activity starts with a question about why the training is required. While end with the evaluation of output of training and development program.
Training needs of an organization are identified by any of the following analysis.
- Organizational analysis: It is basically a systematic study of the organization’s objectives, resources, resource allocation and utilization, growth potential and its environment. Its purpose is to determine where the emphasis for training is to be placed in the organization so that effectiveness of the organization increases.
- Task analysis: In task analysis the main focus is on the job. It requires the study of various types of skills and training required to perform the job effectively. It is systematic analysis of jobs to identify job contents, knowledge, skills and aptitudes needed to perform the job. The important aspects are the tasks to be performed, the methods to be used, the way the employees learn these methods as well as the performance standards required from the employees.
- Manpower analysis: Both the internal and external environments influence the quality of manpower needed by an organization. The quality of manpower also depends upon the social, economical, political and technological environments in which the organization operates. The manpower analysis is done taking into considerations these factors to determine the quality of manpower needed. Specific training needs for the manpower are determined for meeting the quality standards needed as per the manpower analysis. These needs include (i) specific areas where employees need training, (ii) the capability of present employees to learn new skills and behaviour, (iii) the time frame for imparting training, and (iv) designing and redesigning of jobs with introduction of new work methods and technologies.
Steps involved in Training and Development Process
- Need of training and development
- Goals and Objectives
- Method of Training
- Implementation of program
- Evaluation and constant monitoring
Step I: Need of Training and Development program
Companies often take a decision to roll out a training and development program after identifying a specific need in the organization. The need could be introduction of new skill or to update the existing skills of the employee. In the case of employees working on higher level the training and development program is introduced to improve the behavior skills and ensure team work in the organization.
Step II: Goals and Objectives of Training and Development
Here are different goals and objectives the companies can set before implementation of training and development program:
- To impart skills: Under this objective the employees are trained to operate the equipment and machinery correctly. The goals are set to improve work efficiency and to reduce wastage of time.
- To Educate: The objective is linked with providing information about theoretical concepts and provides hands-on experience of the task. The goal is to improve reasoning power and judgment skills of employees.
- To Enhance Knowledge: The objective here is to improve behavioral knowledge of the employee. The goal is to enhance understanding of human relations, management and business environment among employees.
- Ethics: The objective is to provide knowledge about ethical conduct in the organization. The goal is to regulate the conduct of the employee in the organization.
- Change in attitude: The objective of the training is to change the attitude of the employees in terms outlook, reaction, feelings and work beliefs. The goal is to improve commitment and satisfaction of the employee by providing required motivation.
- Extraordinary Skills: To impart extraordinary skills such as critical decision making, problem-solving and industrial research. The goal is make employee ready to face future challenges.
- Literacy: Objective is to improve corporate language proficiency and increase awareness about corporate culture. The goal is to make sure employees are able to handle the international clients and customer in a decent way.
Step III: Training Methods
There exist different types of training methods used by the organization based on the goals and objectives of the training and development program. Here are few commonly used training methods in corporate world:
- Orientations: It is generally used to introduce the newly joined employee to the organizational work culture. It includes few lecture sessions, meetings with supervisor and information regarding the history of the organization. This training is used to make sure the newcomer feels welcomed in the organization and become aware about their work profile, goals and objectives of organization, policies as well as rules and regulations to be followed.
- Lectures: This is a one-way communication method, mostly used when important information has to be conveyed to large number of employees. The information can be related to new updates in policies or any change management action in the organization.
- Case Study: Here the participants are given a situation in terms of case study and they have to provide solutions on the stated problem in the provided case. It is a best way to impart decision making skill and sharpen the judgment skills of the employee.
- Role Playing: A scenario is created and each participant is assigned a particular role to play out. The participant can practice their actual job work using role play method. The facilitator provides immediate feedback to the participant which helps them to improve their performance. These kinds of scenario are very effective while providing marketing and management training.
- Simulations: It can be used as a kind of games created from real-life scenarios. The benefits of this simulations is that employee gets better understanding of whole organizational structure and can study actual day-to-day problems to get a relevant solutions on it.
- Computer-Based Training: The employees are provided study material and instruction on the computer. It allows employees to learn on their own pace and time.
- Self-Instruction: Individualized instruction, programmed learning, personalized systems of instruction, correspondence study and learner-controlled instruction are different types of self-instruction training. Here employees are responsible for their own learning.
- Audiovisual Training: In this type of training films, television and videotapes are used to expose employees to the real-life situation. The presentation includes the situation and how the problem stated in the situation is resolved. It helps employee to gain knowledge about diverse corporate situations and provide them an appropriate direction to take decisions.
- Team-Building Exercises: The training is associated with the human behavior. It includes activities which can improve group dynamics and worker-management relations. It can be in the form of outdoor exercise or brainstorming sessions in the office.
- Apprenticeships and Internships: It is a kind of on-the-job training in which the newly joined employee works with experienced employee and learns work related skills while performing the actual job.
- Job Rotation: In order to enhance the understanding about the whole organization and to add skills the job rotation method of training is used. Here employees do different types of job on rotational basis and gain knowledge of different work profile.
Step IV: Implementation of program
The management and HRM department takes a meeting with different supervisors to decide the time period of implementation of the training and development program. The implementation of orientation programs and other newcomer training programs is carried out right after joining of the employee. The specific skills training programs are launched based on the workload and free time span available to the employee. The on-the-job training program is an ongoing process and employees should be informed about it in advance.
Step V: Evaluation and constant monitoring
The evaluation of training and development program is generally carried out at the time of performance appraisal. The changes in performance and attitude are noted based on the performance review. The increase in productivity and accuracy of work indicates the success of training and development program. Improved work harmony and organizational citizenship behavior indicates the well being created by development programs. The constant monitoring of the behavior of the employee is achieved based on the monthly goal attainment and team work of the employee. Additional training programs are launched in the case of absence of any positive results in terms of improved employee performance.
Employee orientation is the procedure by which new employees learn important organizational process, qualities and standards, set up working relationship and figure out how to work inside their employments. Skills and technical training programs are organized to teach the new employee a particular skill or area of knowledge.
One of the main objectives of training is to provide learning in order to improve the performance on the present job i.e. how skillfully the individual handles the job and the level of outcomes/ result achieved.
There are various steps in training and development in order to be effective and bring about the desired results in terms of enhanced knowledge, skills and attitude.
Training Needs Assessment
Identification of the training needs of the target group which is to be exposed to training can be done in 2 ways:
- Training needs assessment at organization level
- Training needs assessment at individual or employee level.
- Training need assessment at department / functional level
Once the target group is identified, analysis the gap which needs to be bridged through training. Develop specific training objectives and targets for bringing about measurable improvement in their performance levels and enhancement in job related knowledge
- Develop the program contents, training methods to be used, the speakers / faculty/ subject experts to be involved, the mode of instruments to be used, training aids to make the training program more result oriented.
- Identify all training aids which are required for the desired training technique
- Prepare the background material like write up on case, role play, incident method. Also ensure that qualitatively and quantitatively the background reading material meets the norms of delivery of the training objective
Critical preview of program
Administration and detailed physical fragments
Introduce and validate training before a representative audience. Pilot test all training aids, equipment etc. to ensure perfect delivery on the D day
Program implement action
Conduct the program as planned, which each activity going as per schedule
Evaluation and Follow Up
Assess program success according to:
- Reaction: Notify the document the learner’s immediate reaction to the training
- Learning: use feedback devices or pre and post tests to measure what learners have actually learnt
- Behavior: in consultation with the supervisor, observe the behavioural changes in the training. This is one way to measure the degree to which learners may apply new skills and knowledge to their jobs.