Job Analysis is an important component of human resource management system. It provides important information which aids in redesigning jobs and organization structure, planning staffing procedures, designing training and appraisal programs.
Job analysis is beneficial for the overall management of all HR activities. Information obtained from job analysis is useful in various personnel activities, such as HRP, employee recruitment, training, job evaluation, compensation, and performance assessment.
- Human Resource Planning
Job analysis is useful in human resource planning in terms of demand forecasting. It finds out the requisite knowledge and skills required to perform a job.
Job analysis helps in recruitment in terms of finding how and when people should be hired for new job openings. It makes the recruitment process easier by highlighting the skills, knowledge and abilities required to perform a job.
Job analysis helps in selecting the right person by making the employer understand what is to be done on a job.
- Placement and Orientation
Job analysis is useful in putting the newly selected person at the right place in the organization.
Job analysis eases the training process by identifying the duties and responsibilities associated with a job. If the candidate doesn’t have enough knowledge, then training is provided to make him effective.
Proper counselling of the employee is possible only after knowing the details about the employee’s job. This helps in grooming the career of the employees.
- Employee Safety
Through a proper job analysis the analyst can know the health hazards and accidents associated with a job. By knowing, proper steps can be undertaken to eradicate those situations.
- Performance Appraisal
In case of performance appraisal the appraiser compares the performance of the employee with the standard performance based on job analysis. It makes the process of performance appraisal easy and simple.
- Job Design and Redesign
Through job analysis the details of job are identified. From this the weak areas in a job are identified. It helps in reducing unnecessary movements, simplify certain steps and improve the existing ones through continuous monitoring.
- Job Evaluation
It is finding the relative worth of a job in relation to other jobs in the organization. This is done with the help of the job analysis. Job evaluation helps in fixing the pay package of employees with internal and external pay equity.
Utility of Job/Task Analysis
The activity of job analysis is noted to serve several purposes in human resource management. It is useful not only to the organization but also to the individual employees.
(a) In recruitment and selection, task analysis especially competency analysis helps the organization to place people in jobs in which they can be more effective matching role/job with the people.
(b) Job analysis helps in work planning in the following respects –
- Setting individual tasks,
- Helping the job incumbent to decide priorities of task,
- Minimizing overlaps between jobs, and
- Job enrichment
(c) In performance appraisal, job analysis helps in identifying the activities to be performed against which appraisal has to be done.
(d) Analysing the job helps in performance of the tasks and its evaluation by the supervisor.
(e) In potential appraisal, the exercise of task analysis helps in preparing a system of the competency analysis and actual potential appraisal work.
(f) In respect of employee development, task analysis provides feedback on strength and weakness, performance counselling, and training needs of employees.
(e) In team building activity through tasks analysis, better understanding is noted to be developed among employees, building linkages and mutuality between jobs.
Uses of Job Analysis
Job Analysis is an important component of human resource management system. It provides important information which aids in redesigning jobs and organisation structure, planning staffing procedures, designing training and appraisal programs.
- Human Resource Planning
Job analysis represents the qualitative aspect of human resource requirements since it determines the demands of a job in terms of responsibilities and duties and then translates these demands in terms of skills, qualities and other human attributes. It helps in determining the number and kinds of jobs and qualifications needed to fill these jobs.
It is job analysis which reveals what an average person can do on a job in a day. It facilitates the division of work into different jobs which is an essential element of effective human resource planning.
- Recruitment and Selection
To make employment program successful, it is necessary to have clear statements of jobs to be performed and of the skills and knowledge that must be possessed by the employees who will fill these jobs. The information regarding these two is procured from job descriptions and job specifications respectively.
These help in matching as closely as possible the job requirements with workers’ aptitudes, abilities and interests to facilitate the execution of employment program.
A clear understanding of job requirements helps in matching these with the abilities, interests and aptitudes of people. Each job can be assigned to the person who is best suited for it. Similarly, the orientation program can be geared towards helping the employee learn the activities, and understand duties that are required to perform a given job more effectively.
- Training and Development
Training and development programs are administrated to help the employees to gain the skills and knowledge to perform the tasks assigned to them efficiently. This purpose can be achieved conveniently if the employees fully understand the job description and job specification, and are thus familiar with what they are expected to perform.
The same job information is also useful to those who administer training and development programs. It helps them in determining the contents and subject-matter to be incorporated in such programs.
- Job Evaluation
Job evaluation aims at determining the relative worth of various jobs. The worth of a job would in turn help in determining the base compensation of the job. Job evaluation ensures internal pay equity of one job to another. To calculate the worth of a job, information concerning the job is provided by the job descriptions.
- Performance Appraisal
Performance of the employees can be appraised objectively if clear-cut standards of performance for every job are established. Job analysis data can be adapted to establish clear-cut standards of performance for every job. In evaluating the performance of an employee, the supervisor can compare the actual contribution of each man with the set standards.
- Employee Counselling
Job analysis provides information about career choices and personnel limitations. Such information is helpful in vocational guidance and counselling. Employees who are unable to cope with the hazards and demands of given job may be advised to opt for subsidiary jobs which are less demanding.
- Job Design
Job analysis information helps in designing and redesigning of jobs by industrial engineers through time and motion study, work specification, work improvement and work measurement.
- Organizational Design
Job analysis information is useful in classifying jobs and creating interrelationship among them. Responsibility commensurate with authority and accountability for various jobs can be specified so as to minimize duplications or overlapping. In order to improve organizational efficiency, sound decisions concerning hierarchical positions and functional differentiation can be taken on the basis of information obtained through job analysis.
- Safety and Health
The process of job analysis provides an opportunity to uncover and identify hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors like heat, noise, fumes, dust, etc. Corrective measures can be taken to minimise the chances of various risks, ensure safety to workers, and avoid unhealthy conditions.